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Huracán Matthew Se Acerca A Cuba

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Nuestras oraciones estan con la gente de Haiti y Cuba. Que dios lo proteja a todos.

Cuba 2016 – Santiago De Cuba, Siboney y Otro Lugares

Cuba ~ ONE 12 oz. Coffee Mug
Our colorful 12 oz. ceramic mug is perfect for your early morning beverage. The mug includes a unique wrap-around flag design that's visible from all sides. Microwave safe. (Photo shows multiple sides of the same mug to show the wrap around design. Only one mug is included in this listing.)
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Lowest price: $9.95
Cuba - Mini Boxing Gloves
Our vinyl boxing gloves are a great way to show your pride, and look stylish hanging from your rear view mirror. The two gloves are connected with a plastic snap so they can easily be displayed together or apart.
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Lowest price: $3.32
Cuba Gold by Cuba, 3.30 Ounce
Cuba Gold for Men Eau De Toilette Spray 3.3 Oz / 100 Ml by Champs
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Lowest price: $1.60
Memories of a Cuban Kitchen
Authentic Cuban recipes offer a mixture of Spanish, Indian, African, Chinese, and Portuguese cuisine, from appetizers like Green Plantain Chips, to such entrees as Roast Pork Creole, to tropical rum-based drinks and desserts.

Filled with reminiscences and evocative halftone photos of Randelman's childhood in pre-Castro Cuba, this book presents more than 200 traditional recipes for Cuban dishes, a cuisine that lusciously combines Spanish, Indian, African, Chinese, and Portuguese influences.
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Lowest price: $9.21
Pilon Espresso 100 % Arabica Coffee, 10-Ounce Bricks (Pack of 4)
This product is in the form of a Granule and is packaged in a Brick.
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Lowest price: $13.55
Lo Mejor De Celia Cruz & Oscar D'Le¢n En Concierto
Hailing from the Caribbean, Salsa Music spread throughout the globe in the early 70s becoming an international sensation. The album features two of the most iconic and important acts in Salsa Music: Oscar D León and Celia Cruz. The album includes 14 of their all-time biggest hits for fans to enjoy and dance!

Oscar D León is a Venezuelan musician of salsa music. He is the author of Llorarás (included in this compilation), which he originally recorded in 1975 with his group La Dimensión Latina. He has toured successfully the Caribbean and Latin America. He is renowned internationally as the Pharaoh of Salsa as well as The Devil of Salsa . He is also ambassador for Operation Smile.

Celia Cruz was one of the most successful Salsa performers of the 20th century, having earned twenty-three gold albums. She was renowned internationally as the "Queen of Salsa" as well as "La Guarachera de Cuba." She spent most of her career living in New Jersey, and working in the United States and several Latin American countries. Billboard Magazine once said: "Cruz is indisputably the best known and most influential female figure in the history of Cuban music".
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Lowest price: $4.40
3 X Cafe La Llave Espresso Brick, 10 Ounce
Cafe La Llave, is a favorite of Cubans who enjoy a strong and aromatic coffee. Our firm strives every day to please those who enjoy our coffee. In 1870 two brothers of the Basque Country settled in Cuba. There they founded the Hacienda Buenos Aires, the first plantations of coffee in the hills of Trinidad, Cuba. When you savor Cafe La Llave you will share our experience that goes back over a century.

El Cafe La Llave, es el favorito de los cubanos que gustan del cafe fuerte y aromatico. Nuestra firma se esfuerza cada dia mas en complacer a los que disfrutan de nuestro cafe. En 1870 dos hermanos partieron del Pais Vasco para establecerse en Cuba. alli fundaron la Hacienda Buenos Aires, las primeras fundaciones de cafe en las lomas de Trinidad, Cuba, donde se originaron varias generacions de Gaviña. Cuando Ud. saboree el Cafe La Llave compartira nuestra experiencia que se remonta a mas de un siglo.

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Lowest price: $19.50
Cuba Blue by Cuba for Men - 1.2 Ounce EDT Spray
Cuba Blue was launched by the design house of Cuba. This product is a fragrance item that comes in retail packaging. It is recommended for casual wear.
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Lowest price: $2.99
Cuba Domino Table with Map
WOODEN DOMINOES TABLE This Domino Table is covered with a special clear coat to prevent scratches. Table was made using quality wood. Drink Holders with, flag, escudos, photos and Dominoes Racks built in. Wooden legs are included. If additional shipping is added to your order, the shipping charges will be adjusted before your order is processed. Please allow 2 weeks for delivery of these tables. Domino Tables will be shipped UPS Ground FOR SPECIFIC WORDS, NAMES, PICTURES OR PHRASES WE OFFER CUSTOM MADE SERVICE. WE CAN MAKE ANY FLAG, NAME OR PHRASE YOU WANT. EMAIL US FOR MORE INFORMATION
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Lowest price: $225.00
Domino Double Six - Black & White Two Tone Tile Jumbo Tournament Size w/Spinners in Deluxe Velvet Case
Double Six Set of Dominoes (28 Tiles with Spinners for easy mixing) Special look Two Tone White and Black Tiles. Tournament Jumbo Size (2" X 1" X 1/2") (54 x 28 x 12mm). Comes in an Elegant Black Velvet Box.
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Lowest price: $34.99
Domino Double Six Two Tone Black & White in Dovetail Jointed Sheesham Wood Box - Jumbo Tournament Size w/Spinners
One Double Six Set of Dominoes (28 Tiles with Spinners) in Two Tone White and Black. Tournament Jumbo Size (2" X 1" X 1/2"). Comes in an Elegant Sheesham Wood Box with dovetail joints.
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Lowest price: $41.99
Cuba Flag Domino Table with Flag -Full
WOODEN DOMINOES TABLE This Domino Table is covered with a special clear coat to prevent scratches. Table was made using quality wood. Drink Holders with, flag, escudos, photos and Dominoes Racks built in. Wooden legs are included. If additional shipping is added to your order, the shipping charges will be adjusted before your order is processed. Please allow 2 weeks for delivery of these tables. Domino Tables will be shipped UPS Ground FOR SPECIFIC WORDS, NAMES, PICTURES OR PHRASES WE OFFER CUSTOM MADE SERVICE. WE CAN MAKE ANY FLAG, NAME OR PHRASE YOU WANT. EMAIL US FOR MORE INFORMATION
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Lowest price: $225.00
Wooden/wood dominoes/domino table-custom made-Cuba map, Flag and Escudo-Golden OAK stain
This item is made to order ,and because of this any order cancellation will be subject to 20 % restocking fees. Made from solid wood ,this beautiful dominoes table it is handmade and measures approximately 36x36x29,and the playing area measures 29x29 inches. It is stained in Golden OAK, it has an epoxy resin finish(like glass)in the playing area and in the cup holders (where the logos are), the rest of the table it is sealed with few coat of polyurethane. It comes with 4 fordable legs for an easy storage and carrying . SHIPPING: --Shipping is (22.49) anywhere in the U.S. --The item will be shipped 12 days after payment is received (ships in 12 days )made to order*** This item is made to order, so expect variations in wood grain and color, though it will retain the same design as the item pictured. Returns are not accepted unless it arrives damaged.
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Lowest price: $351.99
Sabor De La Cocina Cubana
Spanish Paperback regarding Cocina Cubana
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Lowest price: $39.95
Cocina Cubana: Las Mejores Recetas (Spanish Edition)
Un libro divino de cocina cubana que nos atrae por su nostalgia y fotos lindas. Más de 350 recetas. Paso a paso y simple de cocinar.
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Lowest price: $101.63
La cocina cubana de Vero (Spanish Edition)
Cuban cooking incorporates the island's rich cultural heritage, combining culinary elements from Spain, Africa, China, and France. Verónica Cervera provides not only traditional recipes from Cuba; she also includes recipes from Cubans living in exile. The delicious dishes include Stuffed Potatoes, Lentil Salad, Plantain Soup, Fried Snapper, Ropa Vieja, Mamey Shake, and Guayaba Turnovers. A glossary is included.
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Lowest price: $15.57
Guia de Viaje Cuba 2016: Tiendas, Restaurantes, Atracciones y Vida Nocturna, 2016
Disfrute de lo mejor de Cuba con la "Guía de Viaje Cuba" Un nuevo Directorio de Entretenimiento. Este directorio recién actualizado lista los mejores lugares que este hermoso país tiene para ofrecer. 1550 sitios turísticos para visitar y los mejores 200 restaurantes privados "Paladares" en la Ciudad de La Habana. Una nueva ola de restaurantes privados se ha extendido en la capital cubana, con una atmósfera agradable y cocina de calidad. Paladares con deliciosa cocina criolla pero también italiana, francesa, china, mexicana, india o sueca, por citar unos pocos ejemplos.
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Lowest price: $10.39

Cuba Sol Sexo y Socialismo

Cuba: Castro, Revolution, and the End of the Embargo
Cuba: The Mob, Castro, and the End of the Embargo, explores Cuba's complicated history and emergence from an era of economic isolation from the US. Exploring America's relationship with Cuba, the many political forces that have shaped the country's identity including communism, Batista, and The United Fruit Company; the conflicted legacy of Che Guevara; and the current relationship between Fidel and Raul Castro and President Obama, Cuba contextualizes what the future holds for the Pearl of the Antilles.

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Lowest price: $4.27
Havana Nocturne: How the Mob Owned Cuba and Then Lost It to the Revolution

To underworld kingpins Meyer Lansky and Charles "Lucky" Luciano, Cuba was the greatest hope for the future of American organized crime in the post-Prohibition years. In the 1950s, the Mob—with the corrupt, repressive government of brutal Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista in its pocket—owned Havana's biggest luxury hotels and casinos, launching an unprecedented tourism boom complete with the most lavish entertainment, top-drawer celebrities, gorgeous women, and gambling galore. But Mob dreams collided with those of Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, and others who would lead an uprising of the country's disenfranchised against Batista's hated government and its foreign partners—an epic cultural battle that bestselling author T. J. English captures here in all its sexy, decadent, ugly glory.

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Lowest price: $5.95
Bacardi and the Long Fight for Cuba: The Biography of a Cause
In this widely hailed book, NPR correspondent Tom Gjelten fuses the story of the Bacardi family and their famous rum business with Cuba's tumultuous experience over the last 150 years to produce a deeply entertaining historical narrative. The company Facundo Bacardi launched in Cuba in 1862 brought worldwide fame to the island, and in the decades that followed his Bacardi descendants participated in every aspect of Cuban life. With his intimate account of their struggles and adventures across five generations, Gjelten brings to life the larger story of Cuba's fight for freedom, its tortured relationship with America, the rise of Fidel Castro, and the violent division of the Cuban nation.
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Lowest price: $7.89
Cuba Gold by Cuba, 3.30 Ounce
Cuba Gold for Men Eau De Toilette Spray 3.3 Oz / 100 Ml by Champs
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Lowest price: $1.60
Cuba 3x5 Polyester Flag
Our 3x5ft Polyester Cuba flag has header tape and 2 metal grommets
Flag is dye-sublimated with beautiful bold colors.
Printed on one side the dye goes all the way through the fabric.
Double-stitched around all edges with 4 rows of stitching on fly edge.


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Lowest price: $1.49
Cool & Custom {4" x 6" w/ String Hang} 3 Pack of Rear View Mirror Hanging Ornament Decoration Made of String w/ Cuba National Fringed Flag Design [Benz Blue, White, Yellow, Red & Black Colored]
This custom designed rear view mirror decoration is unique and stylish. Personalizing your car with any accent is a great way to show off your personality!
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Lowest price: $8.99
Cuba Flag Skull Embroidered Sew Iron on Patch
Specification:
- Size : 3.5"x2.4" (H x W)

Features & Benefits:
- Our Patches are 100% embroidered
- Ironed-on Patches will not Peel or Come Off
- Comfort and performance come hand in hand with Ranger Return
- 100% Brand New
- Perfect gift for you and your friend
- These are NOT made in China; they are top quality
- The patches are coated with a special glue that melts due to heat and thereby connecting well with the textiles.
- Place the patch on the desired position and ironing on with the iron. If necessary, sew the patch.

Note:
Please be reminded that due to lighting effects, monitor's brightness / contrast settings etc, there could be some slight differences in the color tone of the pictures and the actual item.
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Lowest price: $5.78
American Experience: Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro has survived U.S. hostility, an invasion, several CIA assassination attempts and an economic embargo. His face has become an iconic image worldwide, yet the man himself remains an enigma to all but a few. Through interviews with relatives, childhood friends, fellow rebel leaders, Bay of Pigs veterans, human rights activists and journalists, this program constructs an intimate portrait of the most resilient of leaders.
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Lowest price: $24.09
Cuba
Maker:  Rio Grande Games
Age:  12+
Cuba prior to the revolution: Under turbulent circumstances, the villages of the island strive for independent wealth and influence.  Who can buy and sell his products and goods on the domestic market profitably or take in the most on the trading ships?  Who can send the right delegate to parliament in order to influence the government legislative process, or erect distilleries, hotels and banks at the right moment to the benefit of his village?  Whoever has accumulated the most victory points at the end of the game, wins. Players earn victory points by shipping merchandise from the harbor, but also by erecting and using buildings, and by abiding by the law.
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Lowest price: $99.99
Cuba Gold for Men Gift Set (Eau de Toilette Spray 3.3 Ounce, Eau de Toilette Spray 1.17 Ounce, After Shave, Deodorant Spray, Shower Gel)
Cuba Gold for Men 5 Pc. Gift Set ( Eau De Toilette Spray 3.4 Oz & Eau De Toilette Spray 1.17 Oz + Aftershave 3.3 Oz + Deodorant Spray 6.6 Oz + Shower Gel 6.6 Oz)
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Lowest price: $18.36
Cuba 2017 Wall Calendar
Cuba 2017 calendar captures the rich culture of this beautiful island frozen in time with vibrant, full-color images. The large format, 18-month wall calendar features grids with ample room for jotting notes and reminders. The large format wall calendar features daily grids with ample room for jotting appointments, birthdays and reminders. Also includes six bonus months of July through December 2016; moon phases; U.S. and international holidays.
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Lowest price: $14.90
Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon Jungle Storm - PlayStation 2
Exclusive for the PS2, Jungle Storm combines a gripping storyline with new features to the Ghost Recon squad-based action series. Features voice command, voice chat systems, online statistics tracking and ladder ranking. Take your skills online to prove yourself the most elite soldier in the world!
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Lowest price: $17.99
Bene Casa Electric Cuban Coffee Maker Adjustable 3 to 6 Cups Free Coffee Pack
6 cup capacity- aluminum boiler- cordless and detachable from base- on/off switch with indicator light- cool touch handle- 480 watt output- this is one of our most popular products. Includes free 10 oz pack of sol de cuba premium cuban coffee. Take your coffee with you on the go No stove top needed. Great for home, office, and travel. Enjoy delicious espresso coffee wherever you are. And while doing so, enjoy a taste of the Caribbean with your free 10 oz pack of sol de cuba espresso.
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Lowest price: $39.99
Cuba Gold By Cuba For Men. Eau De Toilette Spray 3.3 Ounces
Fragrance notes: an exotic essence of bergamot, lavender and vetiver, blended with woods and jasmine. Recommended use: romantic.When applying any fragrance please consider that there are several factors which can affect the natural smell of your skin and, in turn, the way a scent smells on you.  For instance, your mood, stress level, age, body chemistry, diet, and current medications may all alter the scents you wear.  Similarly, factor such as dry or oily skin can even affect the amount of time a fragrance will last after being applied
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Lowest price: $4.00
Cuba Gold by Cuba 20 x 1.17 oz Eau de Toilette Spray ( 1 Box )
Buy Cuba Colognes - Cuba Gold by Cuba 20 x 1.17 oz Eau de Toilette Spray ( 1 Box ). How-to-Use: For long-lasting effects fragrance should be applied to the body’s pulse points. These include the wrist, behind the ear, crease of your arm and knee, and the base of your throat. Pulse points give off more body heat as this is where blood vessels are closest to the skin, therefore continually warming and releasing your fragrance. Also, for a lasting effect spraying fragrance lower on the bod
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Lowest price: $60.00
CubanMan 50 Cigar Desktop Humidor Humidifier Cedar Lining Gorgeous Piano Finish
Stunning Humidor. Excellent Quality . You will not be disappointed. Limited Quantity.
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Lowest price: $69.99
Cuba Classic For Men Gift Set (4 x 1.17 Ounce EDT Spray)
Cuba was launched by the design house of Cuba. It is recommended for casual wear.
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Lowest price: $7.00
Cuba Variety By Cuba For Men. Set-4 Piece Variety spray With Cuba Gold, Blue, Red & Orange & All Are EDT spray 1.17 Ounces

Cuba by Cuba for Men - 4 PC Gift Set 1.17oz cuba gold,1.17oz cuba blue, 1.17oz cuba red, 1.17oz cuba orange

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Lowest price: $7.00
Cuban Crafters Exotica Ebony/Cigar Humidor 125 count
CUBAN CRAFTERS EXOTICA CIGAR HUMIDOR - EXOTIC HIGH GLOSS PIANO FINISH ROSEWOOD WOOD WITH BIRDSEYE MAPLE AND EBONY INLAY, VIRGIN SPANISH CEDAR INTERIOR. HOLDS 150 CIGARS. THIS IS A BARGAIN!!! Exotica (EXOTIC in Spanish) Humidors are true works of art. These quality humidors have a capacity up to 150 cigars. Rosewood is extremely hard and attractive. It is mystical and valued since ancient times. CUBAN EXOTICA Cigar Humidors boast an Exotic Rosewood exterior with genuine Birdseye maple burl & Ebony inlays on the top and front. The humidor is varnished with 12 coats of lacquer, producing an extraordinary High Gloss Piano shine. CUBAN EXOTICA has a Virgin Spanish cedar interior, a felt lined accessory drawer and a large external brass hygrometer that lets you see the humidity level without opening the humidor. This quality work of art also features fine brass hidden quadrant piano hinges, brass inset handles, a Spanish cedar aerator tray and removable dividers, a humidification system, lock & key, and much more. It is fully guaranteed and backed by the best warranty in the industry. HUMIDORS ARE NOT MADE IN CUBA !!!
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Lowest price: $125.99
Cigar Music: Tobacco Songs From Old Havana
Well, you still can't get a Cuban cigar in the States, but here's the next closest thing-a smokin' collection of authentic tobacco songs from Old Havana! Includes Un Buen Tabaco con Ron; De Cigarro en Cigarro; Senor Tiempo; Habana Puro; Manisero; Tabaco Verde , and more. Comes with a poster of Cuban tobacco fields to gaze at while you puff away.
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Lowest price: $13.98
Cuba Prestige by Cuba, 4 Piece Gift Set for Men
Gift Set includes Classic, Black, Platinum and Legacy. All are 1.17 oz Eau De Toilette Sprays.
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Lowest price: $14.99
Mantello Cigar Cutter Stainless Steel Guillotine Double Cut Blade in Gift Box
The Mantello Cutter is your number one choice for a solid cigar cutter to give you a nice clean cut every time! It Features Self-sharpening surgical grade double blades ,a brushed stainless steel finish , comes in a elegant Gift Box! So scroll up to the top of the screen and Buy it Now! You'll love it, 100% Guaranteed!
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Lowest price: $8.99
Stainless Steel Guillotine Style Tarnish Proof Cigar Cutter Handheld Curved Blade Puncher with Case Box for Gifts by Super Z Outlet®
Perfect Tool For Any Cigar Smoker!

Super convenient cigar cutting tool. Makes a great gift for anyone that smokes cigars!

Stainless steel and tarnish proof. Cutting hole is 1" inch in diameter so any sized cigar can be used!

NOTICE: The "Super Z Outlet" seller is the only authorized seller, we do not sell wholesale so there should be NO other sellers; Any other sellers are illegally selling their own products using our registered Trademarked company name. In this listing, purchasing from any seller other than "Super Z Outlet" will result in a potentially faulty product that may be unsafe and cause injury. Please be sure to purchase this product from the "Super Z Outlet" seller to avoid any problems with your product and to ensure both your safety and satisfaction. Manufacturer's warranty included only when purchased from Super Z Outlet.

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Lowest price: $6.99
Cuba Cuban Waving Flag Aluminum License Plate Auto Tag
Size : 6" x 12" Made of the highest quality aluminum for a weather resistant finish. Lightweight; durable, high gloss metal license plate, with pre-drilled holes for quick and easy mounting on any vehicle.
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Lowest price: $2.49
TIME MAGAZINE INSIDE THE NEW CUBA [Single Issue] 2015
discovering the charm of a once-forbidden island: the people, the culture, the paradise and much more !!! INSIDE THE NEW CUBA Time Inc. Special very good
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Lowest price: $49.99
Bene Casa Cuban Flag Double Nines Dominoes Set Wood Box
This Cuban Flag Double Nine Domino Set is a favorite gift for the domino lover in Cuban families everywhere! Designed for quality and durability, you and your loved ones will get years of enjoyment from this timeless set. Set includes 55 dominoes, for double nine or double six style play.
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Lowest price: $9.42

Cuba History photos

Check out these Cuba history images:

SAM S-75 Dvina. ЗРК С-75 “Двина”
Cuba history
Image by Peer.Gynt
Saint-Petersburg. Artillery Museum.

The S-75 Dvina (Russian: С-75; NATO reporting name SA-2 Guideline) is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude, command guided, surface-to-air missile (SAM). Since its first deployment in 1957 it has become the most widely-deployed air defense missile in history. It scored the first destruction of an enemy aircraft by a SAM, shooting down a Taiwanese Martin RB-57D Canberra over China, on October 7, 1959 by hitting it with three V-750 (1D) missiles at an altitude of 20 km (65,600 ft). The success was attributed to Chinese fighters at the time in order to keep the S-75 program secret.
This system first gained international fame when an S-75 battery, using the newer, longer-range and higher-altitude V-750VN (13D) missile shot down the U-2 of Francis Gary Powers overflying the Soviet Union on May 1, 1960.[3] The system was also deployed in Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis, where on October 27, 1962, it shot down the U-2 flown by Rudolf Anderson, almost precipitating nuclear war.[4] North Vietnamese forces used the S-75 extensively during the Vietnam War to defend Hanoi and Haiphong. It has also been locally produced in the People’s Republic of China using the names HQ-1 and HQ-2. Other nations have produced so many local variants combining portions of the S-75 system with both indigenously-developed components or third-party systems that it has become virtually impossible to find a pure S-75 system today,
Development
In the early 1950s, the United States Air Force rapidly accelerated its development of long-range jet bombers carrying nuclear weapons. The USAF program led to the deployment of Boeing B-47 Stratojet supported by aerial refueling aircraft to extend its range deep into the Soviet Union. The USAF quickly followed the B-47 with the development of the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, which had greater range and payload than the B-47. The range, speed, and payload of these U.S. bombers posed a significant threat to the Soviet Union in the event of a war between the two countries.
onsequently, the Soviets initiated the development of improved air defense systems. Although the Soviet Air Defence Forces had large numbers of anti-aircraft artillery (AAA), including radar-directed batteries, the limitations of guns versus high-altitude jet bombers was obvious. Therefore, the Soviet Air Defense Forces began the development of missile systems to replace the World War II-vintage gun defenses.
In 1953, KB-2 began the development of what became the S-75 under the direction of Pyotr Grushin. This program focused on producing a missile which could bring down a large, non-maneuvering, high-altitude aircraft. As such it did not need to be highly maneuverable, merely fast and able to resist aircraft counter-measures. For such a pioneering system, development proceeded rapidly, and testing began a few years later. In 1957, the wider public first became aware of the S-75 when the missile was shown at that year’s May Day parade in Moscow.
Initial deployment
Wide-scale deployment started in 1957, with various upgrades following over the next few years. The S-75 was never meant to replace the S-25 Berkut surface-to-air missile sites around Moscow, but it did replace high-altitude anti-aircraft guns, such as the 130 mm KS-30 and 100 mm KS-19. Between mid-1958 and 1964, U.S. intelligence assets located more than 600 S-75 sites in the USSR. These sites tended to cluster around population centers, industrial complexes, and government control centers. A ring of sites was also located around likely bomber routes into the Soviet heartland. By the mid-1960s, the Soviet Union had ended the deployment of the S-75 with perhaps 1,000 operational sites.
In addition to the Soviet Union, several S-75 batteries were deployed during the 1960s in East Germany to protect Soviet forces stationed in that country. Later the system was sold to most Warsaw Pact countries and was provided to China, North Korea, and eventually, North Vietnam.
Employment
While the shooting down of Francis Gary Powers’ U-2 in 1960 is the first publicized success for the S-75, the first aircraft actually shot down by the S-75 was a Taiwanese Martin RB-57D Canberra high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. In this case, the aircraft was hit by a Chinese-operated S-75 site near Beijing on October 7, 1959. Over the next few years, the Taiwanese ROCAF would lose a number of aircraft to the S-75: both RB-57s and various drones. On May 1, 1960, Gary Powers’s U-2 was shot down while flying over the testing site near Sverdlovsk, although it is thought to have taken 14 missiles to hit his high-flying plane. That action led to the U-2 Crisis of 1960. Additionally, Chinese S-75s downed five ROCAF-piloted U-2s based in Taiwan.[5]
During the Cuban Missile Crisis, a U-2 piloted by USAF Major Rudolf Anderson was shot down over Cuba by an S-75 in October 1962.[6]
In 1965, North Vietnam asked for some assistance against American airpower, for their own air-defense system lacked the ability to shoot down aircraft flying at high altitude. After some discussion it was agreed to supply the PAVN with the S-75. The decision was not made lightly, because it greatly increased the chances that one would fall into US hands for study. Site preparation started early in the year, and the US detected the program almost immediately on April 5, 1965. While military planners pressed for the sites to be attacked before they could become operational, their political leaders refused, fearing that Soviet technical staff might be killed.
On July 24, 1965, a USAF F-4C aircraft was shot down by an SA-2.[7] Three days later, the US responded with Operation Iron Hand to attack the other sites before they could become operational. Most of the S-75 were deployed around the Hanoi-Haiphong area and were off-limits to attack (as were local airfields) for political reasons. President Lyndon Johnson announced on public TV that one of the other sites would be attacked the next week. The Vietnamese removed the missiles and replaced them with decoys, while moving every available anti-aircraft gun into the approach routes. The tactic worked, causing heavy American casualties.
The missile system was used widely throughout the world, especially in the Middle East, where Egypt and Syria used them to defend against the Israeli Air Force, with the air defense net accounting for the majority of the downed Israeli aircraft. The last apparent success seems to have occurred during the War in Abkhazia (1992–1993), when Georgian missiles shot down a Russian Sukhoi Su-27 fighter near Gudauta on March 19, 1993.
Countermeasures and counter-countermeasures
Between 1965 and 1966, the US delivered a number of solutions to the S-75 problem. The Navy soon had the Shrike missile in service and mounted their first offensive strike on a site in October 1965. The Air Force responded by fitting B-66 bombers with powerful jammers (that blinded the early warning radars) and by developing smaller jamming pods for fighters (that denied range information to the radars). Later developments included the Wild Weasel aircraft, which were fitted with anti-radiation air-to-surface missile systems made to home in on the radar from the threat. This freed them to shoot the sites with Shrikes of their own.
The Soviets and Vietnamese, however, were able to adapt to some of these tactics. The USSR upgraded the radar several times to improve ECM (electronic counter measure) resistance. They also introduced a passive guidance mode, whereby the missile could lock on the jammer itself. This had an added advantage, because the radar had to be turned off, which prevented Shrikes from being fired. Moreover, some new tactics were developed to combat the Shrike. One of them was to point the radar to the side and then turn it off briefly. Since the Shrike was a relatively primitive anti-radiation missile, it would follow the beam away from the radar and then simply crash when it lost the signal (after the radar was turned off). Another was a "false launch" in which the tracking radar was turned on, but the missiles were not actually fired. This allowed the missile crew to see if the target was equipped with a Shrike. If the aircraft fired one, the Shrike could be neutralized with the side-pointing technique without sacrificing any S-75s.
Despite these advances, the US was able to come up with effective ECM packages for the B-52E models. These planes were able to fly raids against Hanoi with relatively few losses (though still significant enough to cause some concern; see Operation Linebacker II).
Replacement systems
Soviet Air Defence Forces started to replace the S-75 with the vastly superior SA-10 and SA-12 systems in the 1980s. Today only a few hundred, if any, of the 4,600 missiles are still in Russian service, even though they underwent a modernization program as late as 1993.[citation needed]
The S-75 remains in widespread service throughout the world, with some level of operational ability in 35 countries. Vietnam and Egypt are tied for the largest deployments at 280 missiles each, while North Korea has 270, and Poland has 240. The Chinese also deploy the HQ-2, an upgrade of the S-75, in relatively large numbers.
Soviet doctrinal organization
The Soviet Union used a fairly standard organizational structure for S-75 units. Other countries that have employed the S-75 may have modified this structure. Typically, the S-75 is organized into a regimental structure with three subordinate battalions. The regimental headquarters will control the early-warning radars and coordinate battalion actions. The battalions will contain several batteries with their associated acquisition and targeting radars.
Site layout
Each battalion will typically have six, semi-fixed, single-rail launchers for their V-750 missiles positioned approximately 60 to 100 m (200 to 330 ft) apart from each other in a hexagonal "flower" pattern, with radars and guidance systems placed in the center. It was this unique "flower" shape that led to the sites being easily recognizable in reconnaissance photos. Typically another six missiles are stored on tractor-trailers near the center of the site.
An example of a site can be seen here just to the west of the junction to Bosra on the M5 motorway in Syria, south of Damascus. This location covers the borders with both Israel and Jordan, so it is of strategic importance.
Missile
V-750

V-750V 1D missile on a launcher
TypeSurface-to-air missile
Place of origin Soviet Union
Production history
VariantsV-750, V-750V, V-750VK, V-750VN, V-750M, V-750SM, V-750AK
Specifications (V-750[9])
Weight2,300 kg (5,100 lb)
Length10,600 mm (420 in)
Diameter700 mm (28 in)
WarheadFrag-HE
Warhead weight200 kg (440 lb)
Detonation
mechanismCommand
PropellantSolid-fuel booster and a storable liquid-fuel upper stage
Operational
range45 km (28 mi)
Flight altitude20,000 m (66,000 ft)
Boost time5 s boost, then 20 s sustain
SpeedMach 3.5
Guidance
systemRadio control guidance
Accuracy65 m
Launch
platformSingle rail, ground mounted (not mobile)
The V-750 is a two-stage missile consisting of a solid-fuel booster and a storable liquid-fuel upper stage, which burns red fuming nitric acid as the oxidizer and kerosene as the fuel. The booster fires for about 4–5 seconds and the main engine for about 22 seconds, by which time the missile is traveling at about Mach 3. The booster mounts four large, cropped-delta wing fins that have small control surfaces in their trailing edges to control roll. The upper stage has smaller cropped-deltas near the middle of the airframe, with a smaller set of control surfaces at the extreme rear and (in most models) much smaller fins on the nose.
The missiles are guided using radio control signals (sent on one of three channels) from the guidance computers at the site. The earlier S-75 models received their commands via two sets of four small antennas in front of the forward fins, while the D model and later models used four much larger strip antennas running between the forward and middle fins. The guidance system at an S-75 site can handle only one target at a time, but it can direct three missiles against it. Additional missiles could be fired against the same target after one or more missiles of the first salvo had completed their run, freeing the radio channel.
The missile typically mounts a 195 kg (430 lb) fragmentation warhead, with proximity, contact, and command fusing. The warhead has a lethal radius of about 65 m (213 ft) at lower altitudes, but at higher altitudes the thinner atmosphere allows for a wider radius of up to 250 m (820 ft). The missile itself is accurate to about 75 m (246 ft), which explains why two were typically fired in a salvo. One version, the SA-2E, mounted a 295 kg (650 lb) nuclear warhead of an estimated 15 Kiloton yield or a conventional warhead of similar weight.
Typical range for the missile is about 45 km (28 mi), with a maximum altitude around 20,000 m (66,000 ft). The radar and guidance system imposed a fairly long short-range cutoff of about 500 to 1,000 m (1,600 to 3,300 ft), making them fairly safe for engagements at low level.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-75_Dvina

Image from page 253 of “Our native birds of song and beauty, being a complete history of all the songbirds, flycatchers, hummingbirds, swifts, goatsuckers, woodpeckers, kingfishers, trogons, cuckoos, and parrots, of North America” (1893)
Cuba history
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: cu31924084820277
Title: Our native birds of song and beauty, being a complete history of all the songbirds, flycatchers, hummingbirds, swifts, goatsuckers, woodpeckers, kingfishers, trogons, cuckoos, and parrots, of North America
Year: 1893 (1890s)
Authors: Nehrling, Henry 1853-1929
Subjects: Birds
Publisher: Milwaukee, G. Brumder
Contributing Library: Cornell University Library
Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

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re-quently raised in confinement by Dr. Karl Russ and other bird-lovers. These tiny birds ofan olive-green color, with velvety black throat, cheeks, and face, and with a broad yellowcollar round the black throat, are extremely lively in the cage, but they are veritablegame-roosters if several are kept together. They live quite well on Canary and milletseeds in winter, but need a diet like the Indigo Bunting in spring and summer. Theybuild a beautiful globular nest with a small entrance on the side. Like the small Africanand Australian Finches the pair frequently sits together even in the nest. The four,rarely five eggs, are grayish, or greenish-white, minutely dotted and blotched withgreen, dark and light brown. The young birds leave the nest very early and whenscarcely fledged. The Cuba Finch or Melodious Grassquit is known in the eastern part of Cubaunder the name of Senserenico and in the western part, according to Dr. J. Gundlach,Tome guin del Pinor is its common name. Tafel XXVII

Text Appearing After Image:
SPIZA AMERICANA RIDGW. S C H I LD AM MER.D i c l< c i s s e 1. DICKCISSEL. Spiza americatia Ridgway. Plate XXYII. BURING the month of April and May the plain, monotonous prairie west andnorth-west of Houston, Texas, offers a magnificent sight. As far as the eye canreach, the grassy savanna is covered with a carpet of highly colored flowers. Phloxes,verbenas^ lark-spurs, crowfoots, gaillardias*, coreopsis^ and many other flowersimpart these rich prairies with a beauty peculiarly their own. Everywhere we find theprostrate, very prickly stems of the mimosa or sensitive plant*, the rosy-purplishflower-balls of which exhale a delicate honey-like fragrance. The leaves of this interestingplant are very sensitive, bending, folding, and apparently shrinking away from the touchof the hand. Pure white, deliciously scented spider-lilies grow and flower abundantlyin the black soil, and blue-eyed grass and the pretty nemastylis® are also found infavorable places. Yuccas and opuntias, the latter

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Homenaje a Celia Cruz – Esa Negra Tiene Tumbao

Que homenaje mas lindo a Celia Cruz… Esa Negra Tiene Tumbao…

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MURALLAS DE CUELLAR SEGOVIA 6987
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Image by Jose Javier Martin Espartosa
La azarosa historia de estas murallas es un compendio de los usos, abusos sensibilidades y costumbres de cada época histórica de sus 10 siglos de existencia, estas murallas han tenido que defenderse mas de ladrones poderosos que de ejércitos enemigos

CONSTRUCCION: SIGLOS XI-XV

La muralla de Cuéllar tiene su origen en la Alta Edad Media, cuando tuvo lugar la definitiva repoblación de la villa, encomendada por Alfonso VI de Castilla al conde Pedro Ansúrez. El inicio de su construcción puede fecharse a partir del año 1085, en dicha repoblación, tal y como atestiguan los restos más antiguos de muralla que se han encontrado, localizados en el castillo y datados en el siglo XI. Esta construcción se extendió a lo largo de los siglos XII y especialmente en el XIII.
La primera noticia documentada data de 29 de abril de 1264. Se trata de un documento de Alfonso X el Sabio por el cual concedió, a petición del concejo de Cuéllar, que la recaudación de ciertas multas se emplease para el arreglo de la muralla
Nuevamente el concejo de la villa solicitó a un monarca, esta vez a Enrique II de Castilla en 1374, la concesión de las heredades situadas en la villa que habían pertenecido a Juana de Castro para la reparación de la muralla, petición que no fue aceptada por el rey. La muestra del interés de la villa por su muralla se deduce de otra nueva petición, esta vez al infante don Fernando, quien concedió licencia al concejo el 13 de febrero de 1403 para reparar los muros, y para ello debieron pagar 30.000 maravedís todos los vecinos de Cuéllar y su Tierra, sin distinción de estados
En 1427, tras la preocupación del concejo por fortalecer y restaurar sus muros defensivos, Juan II de Aragón, que era entonces señor de la villa, firmó en Valladolid un documento dirigido al concejo, para que autorizase al arcediano Gómez González a edificar adosado a la muralla el Hospital de la Magdalena, una de sus fundaciones, dejando a salvo la ronda y defensa de la misma, pero rompiendo para ello parte del muro. Al parecer existió una autorización previa pero el concejo, preocupado por la defensa de la ciudad, se opuso después a las obras. El arcediano tuvo que solicitar de nuevo permiso al rey, quien contestó que se le dejase concluir el edificio. Finalmente el arcediano no cumplió con lo que el señor de la villa le impuso, y no respetó el paseo de ronda de la muralla, pues apoyó el edificio literalmente sobre ésta, sin dejar opción al paseo de ronda.

REFORMAS DEL SIGLO XVI

Las murallas se reconstruyeron y ampliaron durante los siglos XIV y XV con fines defensivos. Cuando Beltrán de la Cueva llegó al señorío de Cuéllar en 1464 las murallas románicas se encontraban en buen estado, pero a la vez que realizó las obras de ampliación del castillo, reforzó también el resto de fortificación. Así, en 1471 amplió la muralla norte con objeto de levantar el lienzo y la barbacana. A su vez, fortaleció el lienzo del primer recinto que transcurre desde el arco de San Basilio hasta el muro más próximo del castillo.
En esta época los Reyes Católicos iniciaron un programa general de inspección y reparación de murallas en ciudades castellanas en el que instaron a señores, priores, maestres y corregidores de las villas a que informasen de la situación de las mismas a través de maestros arquitectos, y de quantos maravedis se han de gastar para su restauración, por lo que es posible que las obras llevadas a cabo por el primer duque se debieran a esa campaña de murallas que realizaron los monarcas.

Tras la muerte de Beltrán, acaecida en 1492, su hijo y sucesor Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, II duque de Alburquerque y II señor de la villa, llevó a cabo las reformas más importantes del conjunto, siguiendo las pautas marcadas por su padre. Las obras se iniciaron hacia el año 1500 y tuvieron como principal cometido reforzar los muros existentes para poder defender sus derechos sobre la villa ante un posible ataque de su madrastra, María de Velasco, quien consideraba que tenía derechos sobre la misma. La mitad del coste de las obras fue sufragado por el duque, algo inusual, ya que el pago de este tipo de reformas corría a cargo de la población, y no del señor.

Las obras llevadas a cabo por el II duque comenzaron fortaleciendo el primer recinto, desde la iglesia de San Esteban hasta el arco de San Martín, y desde éste al de Santiago, elevando sus lienzos y dotando de almenado y merlones con saeteras al conjunto. También intervino en el arco de San Pedro, dotando al ábside de su iglesia de una apariencia militar, y colocó su escudo de armas, al igual que lo hizo en todas las puertas del recinto de la ciudadela que reforzó.

ABANDONO SIGLOS XVII-XIX

A partir del siglo XVII y sobre todo del XVIII, las murallas dejaron de ser una edificación principal, pasando a un segundo plano para la población. Este desuso hizo que se debilitase paulatinamente, y comenzó una época de abandono para el conjunto que llevó a la pérdida de parte del recorrido murado. La iniciativa marcada en el siglo XV por el señor de Cuéllar permitiendo edificar sobre la muralla, dio pie a que se comenzase a construir de forma masiva edificaciones adosadas a ella, y así en 1587 se autorizó a Juan de Ortelano a construir una casa junto a la muralla de San Pedro; otra autorización llegó a mediados del siglo XVII, para hacer lo mismo junto al arco de San Martín. El proceso de edificar cargando vigas sobre los muros proporcionó un gran deterioro a los mismos, pues para obtener mayor amplitud se rebajaron por el interior, y se abrieron bastantes ventanas y otros espacios rompiendo así la pulcritud y firmeza que habían poseído.
A mediados de este siglo la población desmontó algunos paños de muralla para reutilizar la piedra en sus casas, a lo que el concejo respondió con demandas y multas, como ocurrió en 1649. En el siglo XVIII se vio obligado a derribar el arco exterior de la puerta de Carchena, dejando únicamente el más fuerte, el interior. También se encontraba en peligro de hundimiento el arco de la Trinidad en 1777, cuya muralla había perdido ya el almenado en un derrumbe anterior.

Las murallas pertenecían al duque de Alburquerque como señor de la villa. A partir de la abolición de los señoríos en 1811 continuaron en posesión de la Casa Ducal. Ésta sufrió ese mismo año uno de los cambios más importantes de su historia cuando el XIV duque falleció en Londres sin sucesión que heredase su Casa, extinguiéndose definitivamente el linaje de la Cueva en el ducado. Tras un largo pleito de diecinueve años, la Casa de Alburquerque recayó en la familia Osorio, marqueses de Alcañices y de los Balbases, en la persona de Nicolás Osorio y Zayas, defensor de la Revolución Liberal.

El nuevo duque de Alburquerque se desvinculó totalmente de Cuéllar, una tierra que había heredado de sus antepasados pero con la que no guardaba ninguna relación sentimental ni histórica, pues heredó la Casa por línea femenina, comenzando así el mayor deterioro de las murallas, y ocasionando el golpe más decisivo contra el recinto. En 1842 el paño de muralla junto al Estudio de Gramática amenazaba ruina y el ayuntamiento comunicó la situación al nuevo duque, que no quiso hacer frente a su restauración. El mismo año se acordó quitar las puertas de los arcos de San Andrés y Carchena para evitar que el peso de las mismas contribuyera al derrumbamiento de dichos arcos. Años más tarde se retiraron también las del arco de la Trinidad, que se tasaron en 320 reales y se colocaron en el corral del mesón.

En 1858 se denunció el hundimiento de otro paño junto al arco de Santiago y, en la misma zona, hubo un derrumbe en noviembre de 1859. Estos desplomes alarmaron a las autoridades de la villa y la cuestión jurídica de la propiedad de las murallas pasó al primer plano municipal, ya que si el duque de Alburquerque, quien se consideraba dueño de las mismas no intervenía en ellas, el ayuntamiento debía tomar una medida para evitar que la población continuase en peligro. Se consultó a diversos juristas sobre la legalidad de la posesión ducal de los muros, y su respuesta fue terminante: al quedar abolidos los señoríos jurisdiccionales, el duque no podía considerarse dueño de las mismas y, tras diversos trámites, se obligó al duque a que renunciase sobre sus derechos, pasando a partir de entonces la titularidad del recinto amurallado al ayuntamiento.

Tras ello, las autoridades provinciales intervinieron en el asunto y enviaron a un delineante de obras públicas para que realizase un informe sobre el estado de la muralla, en el que señaló cuatro zonas en grave peligro: el paño comprendido entre los arcos de Santiago y el de las Cuevas; desde el Hospital de las Llagas hasta el arco de San Martín; desde el arco de Carchena hasta el de San Pedro y, finalmente, el entorno y arco de la Trinidad. Ante tal informe el ayuntamiento ordenó a los vecinos dueños de las casas adosadas a los dichos tramos de muralla en peligro, que desalojaran sus viviendas, así como también la retirada de escombros. Un nuevo informe se realizó en 1868 por el cual se dictaminó el derribo de los paños de muro que se encontraban en peligro, al que acompañaba un presupuesto de gastos y el modo en que debía realizarse, aunque el desmonte de los mismos no se realizó de forma inmediata, sino que se llevó a cabo en varios años.Finalmente, en 1873 se hundió un paño de muralla junto al arco de la Trinidad, desapareciendo los pocos restos que conservaba de su almenado

DERRIBO: SIGLOS XIX Y XX
La nueva titularidad no reportó ningún beneficio al monumento pues, a causa de la escasez económica del ayuntamiento y el estado ruinoso de las murallas, no comenzaron a restaurarse hasta principios del siglo XX, después de que en el último tercio del XIX se llevasen a cabo los derribos señalados en los informes, debido a que el coste de restauración era mayor que el de su demolición.

En 1873 se derribó el arco de Carchena, y un año después se hundió parte del lienzo de las calles de la Barrera y Herreros. Un nuevo y aparatoso hundimiento en la zona en 1878, en el que desapareció definitivamente el gran paño que envolvía dichas calles, volvió a poner de actualidad el estado de las murallas. El informe señaló varios puntos peligrosos: el lienzo junto al arco de Santiago, calles de la Barrera, de la Magdalena, San Julián, Herreros y arco de la Trinidad. En 1879 se comenzó el derribo de la muralla de la calle de los Herreros, y el 12 de julio del mismo año el ayuntamiento acordó derribar el arco y paño de muralla de la Trinidad. En 1884 se eliminó el arco de Carchena, así como una de las arcadas del de San Andrés. El 19 de diciembre de 1891 se prohibió obtener piedra y tierra de la pendiente que suponía el paño de muralla del castillo,14 y en 1895 se derribó el arco de San Pedro, que no sólo redujo el peligro, sino que se logró así el ensanche de la calle como cuestión de ornato y arreglo de la vía pública, tal y como justifican las actas municipales. Por entonces también debió derribarse el arco de las Cuevas, aunque no consta su fecha.

Durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX las murallas comenzaron a perder estabilidad de manera progresiva. Entre 1923 y 1924 el ayuntamiento comenzó a destinar pequeñas partidas económicas para su restauración, al igual que lo hizo entre 1931 y 1932, obras que continuaron tras la denominación de conjunto Histórico-Artístico en 1931.
En los años 1940, durante la etapa en la que el castillo fue penal, uno de los trabajos de los presos consistió en rebajar dos metros la altura de la muralla en la zona norte del castillo, con vistas a la carretera de Valladolid, para emplear la piedra en la construcción del desaparecido sanatorio antituberculoso situado al sur del castillo.

En el año 1955 se derribó un importante paño de muralla entre el arco de San Basilio y el castillo, para obtener un acceso más amplio a la calle del Palacio que el proporcionado por el citado arco. La intervención, de gran envergadura, resultó fuertemente criticada por los vecinos de la villa por diversos motivos. En primer lugar, por el atentado contra el patrimonio que la actuación suponía, a lo que la corporación municipal respondió que ya existía un pequeño paso, de un hundimiento sufrido siglos antes, y que únicamente se había ampliado con un derribo menor, hecho que corroboran fotografías anteriores al derribo, aunque se trataba de un pasillo muy estrecho practicado en un extremo y de un tamaño mínimo, nada que ver con el visible después de la intervención, en la que desaparecieron unos ocho metros de muro aproximadamente. Para llevar a cabo la intervención hubo de moverse miles de metros cúbicos de tierra, ya que el nivel del terreno en el interior de la ciudadela era mayor que en el exterior.

Las denuncias públicas se hicieron más fuertes cuando los vecinos comprendieron la situación: el nuevo acceso abierto permitía la entrada y salida de camiones de gran tamaño a la explanada del castillo, donde se ubicaba una fábrica de achicoria propiedad del alcalde en funciones, Felipe Suárez, lo que provocó gran conmoción en la villa. Efectivamente, el tamaño del arco de San Basilio no permitía la entrada de grandes camiones, e incluso era frecuente que los menores quedasen atrancados en la puerta durante sus intentos. La nueva entrada permitía a la fábrica cargar y descargar directamente desde su interior, ahorrando los trabajos de los carretilleros que hasta entonces habían tenido que trasladar a mano la mercancía fuera del recinto para su carga.
El 14 de diciembre de 1960 fue autorizada, por parte del Ayuntamiento, la demolición de un panel de muralla en la parte baja de la villa, que cerraba el recinto de la ciudad con el desaparecido arco de San Pedro. Dentro de su demolición también se incluyó una casa solariega perteneciente a la familia Hinestrosa, y que por entonces se consideraba la casa natal de Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, primer gobernador de Cuba.

INTENTO DE RECUPERACION: FINALES DEL SIGLO XX

En la década de los años 70 las murallas comenzaron a recuperar su interés histórico, y la administración mostró su preocupación a través de sucesivas restauraciones de pequeña envergadura. Así, el 19 de febrero de 1972 la entidad financiera Caja Segovia aportó un donativo de 350.000 pesetas para la restauración del arco de San Basilio, obra para la que la Diputación Provincial de Segovia aportó 100.000 pesetas más, que llevó a cabo una Escuela Taller a través del Ayuntamiento de Cuéllar.

El 4 de febrero de 1977 se hundió parte del torreón del arco de Santiago, siendo restaurado por la Dirección General de Bellas Artes de inmediato, aunque los criterios utilizados no devolvieron al torreón su estructura original, ya que su altura quedó reducida considerablemente. Al mismo tiempo el ayuntamiento adquirió unas casas adosadas a la muralla en la calle de la Muralla, y otra en las mismas condiciones junto al arco de San Martín, con el fin de derribarlas para dejar al descubierto los paños de muralla correspondientes. Asimismo, el Ministerio de Cultura a través de la Dirección General de Bellas Artes restauró en aquella década el arco de San Andrés, y posteriormente el paño de muralla interior que une el arco de San Martín con el de Santiago. Nuevamente el ayuntamiento compró a principios de 1986 otro edificio contiguo a la muralla en la zona suroeste, entre las calles Carchena y los Herreros, liberando un paño más, aunque su recuperación fue polémica, ya que sólo mantuvieron un metro de altura en la muralla, rebajando algunos tramos.

Entre 1988 y 1989 el ayuntamiento de Cuéllar mediante una Escuela Taller rehabilitó el paño sur de la Huerta del Duque, que presentaba grandes huecos que asemejaban impactos de artillería, y amenazaba con el peligro de derrumbarse sobre el citado parque. La actuación intervino en 225 m en una superficie de 800 m² para la que se utilizaron 630 m³ de piedra. Durante la restauración se descubrió una poterna mudéjar, especie de puerta falsa de la que no se tenía constancia.

El 2 de noviembre de 1998, durante las obras llevadas a cabo en la plaza de San Gil, que consistían en eliminar las edificaciones adosadas a la muralla y construir posteriormente una nueva oficina de turismo, se derribó ilegalmente un tramo de muralla de 11 m de largo x 4,5 m de alto x 2,20 m de ancho, justificado como un hundimiento accidental, que tras diversos informes se concluyó que se había tratado de un derribo provocado, y por ello la Junta de Castilla y León abrió un expediente administrativo al ayuntamiento, quien hizo caso omiso a las recomendaciones de los técnicos de la Comisión Territorial de Patrimonio meses antes de ejecutarse las obras. Finalmente el ayuntamiento fue condenado a pagar 8 millones de pesetas, por considerar que fue derrumbada por iniciativa suya.

A pesar de que meses después la Comisión de Patrimonio aprobó su restauración para volver a levantar el tramo de muralla, no se procedió a ello, sino que se habilitó como mirador perfilando en líneas rectas los restos que quedaron. Además, se rebajó en 7 m de largo casi 1,5 m de altura del paño de muralla sobre el que se adosó la nueva edificación, extrayendo por ello más de 13 m³ de piedra de la muralla.24

A finales de verano de 2002 se llevó a cabo una importante restauración del paño de muralla ubicado en la calle Nueva, sobre el que se asienta el Hospital de la Magdalena, mediante un convenio entre el ayuntamiento de Cuéllar, el Ministerio de Trabajo y el Instituto Nacional de Empleo, cuyas obras fueron financiadas por la Comunidad Europea a través del Fondo Social Europeo.

RESTAURACION COMPLETA SIGLO XXI

En el año 2000 se iniciaron las negociaciones para llevar a cabo una restauración integral del conjunto, a través de un proyecto financiado por el Gobierno español, que constaba de una estricta catalogación y descripción de los distintos lienzos de muralla de ambos recintos, y perseguía una línea europea de financiación, el Espacio Económico Europeo, a través del cual se logró la viabilidad de la restauración.

Las obras fueron adjudicadas el 15 de febrero de 2008 y comenzaron dos meses después, con una extensión durante 2009, 2010 y 2011, y un presupuesto aproximado de 3,4 millones de euros. El proyecto permitió acometer de forma conjunta y ordenada la restauración y consolidación del conjunto amurallado en diferentes fases de actuación.

Se llevó a cabo el recrecido de la mayor parte de lienzos, recuperando el camino de ronda y el almenado, incorporando accesos y haciendo transitable parte del recinto de la ciudadela, como motor turístico. Se realizaron excavaciones en el foso del castillo, para conseguir los niveles originales del mismo, y se cerró la muralla de la ciudadela en los dos extremos en los que se encuentra dividida, así como la reconstrucción del paño de muralla de la plaza de San Gil. Dentro del mismo plan, se llevó a cabo la restauración del exterior del ala oeste del castillo, y se incorporó la rehabilitación del Hospital de la Magdalena como albergue juvenil.
Para llevar a cabo la restauración de algunos paños de muralla, el ayuntamiento de Cuéllar adquirió diversos solares y edificaciones adosadas a la muralla con el fin de liberar la misma y permitir una visión más amplia del lienzo. Como criterio general, se procuró mantener el acabado original siempre que fue posible, pues el objetivo final del proyecto era la recuperación de las defensas, ponerlas en valor y hacerlas visitables en la parte más importante de su trazado.

Las obras finalizaron en el verano de 2011, sumando un presupuesto final de 3.5.538.286 euros, aportado en su totalidad por el Ministerio de Fomento de España a través del programa de Recuperación de Elementos y Recintos de Arquitectura Defensiva de la Secretaría de Estado de Vivienda y Actuaciones Urbanas.Finalmente, fueron inauguradas y abiertas al público el 22 de noviembre del mismo año

La marina de guerra rusa en Cuba
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Image by Cubahora
Tres buques de la marina de guerra de la Federación Rusa llegaron a La Habana para realizar una visita amistosa que se extenderá hasta el próximo martes… bit.ly/185txLz

A day in the life of Havana

From the tourist mecca of Old Havana to the harsh realities of Castro’s cuba take a tour around the fabulous city of Havana. Don’t forget to visit our travel photography site http://www.jasonrowphotography.co.uk for more images of Cuba. You can follow us on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/TheOdessaFiles/
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Hosted by WFLA-TV anchor Keith Cate. Reporter Jeff Patterson and photojournalist Bob Hansen travel behind the curtain in Cuba as news breaks of a possible end to the trade embargo with the U.S. and an easing of travel restrictions. a look at the sights, sounds, culture and people of the island nation.
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Image from page 875 of “Our greater country; being a standard history of the United States from the discovery of the American continent to the present time ..” (1901)
cuba news
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: ourgreatercountr00nort
Title: Our greater country; being a standard history of the United States from the discovery of the American continent to the present time ..
Year: 1901 (1900s)
Authors: Northrop, Henry Davenport, 1836-1909
Subjects:
Publisher: Philadelphia, National pub co.
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: Sloan Foundation

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About This Book: Catalog Entry
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Text Appearing Before Image:
e of Cuba andassist the patriots, or at least to acknowledgetheir rights as belligerents. The govern-ment, however, faithfully observed its obli*gations as a neutral power, and forbade theorganization or departure of all expeditionsfrom this country for the assi-stance of theCubans. The Cuban agents were preventedfrom shipping arms or military supplies to 8l2 ADMINISTRATION OF ULYSSES S GRANT. theii forces, and several vessels intended toserve as cruisers against the Spanish commerce were seized and detained by theFederal authorities. In spite of the precautions of the govern-ment, however, several expeditions did suc-ceed in getting to sea and reaching Cuba.One of these embarked on the steamer the next day. Captain Fry, the com-mander of the Virginius, and the crewand passengers of the vessel were throwninto prison. After a mock trial, in which the simplestforms of decency were disregarded, CaptainFry and a number of the crew and passengersof the Virginius, about thirty-five or fortv

Text Appearing After Image:
THE LAVA BEDS—SCENE OF THE MODOC WAR. Virginius, in the fall of 1873. When offthe coast of Jamaica the Spanish war steamer Tornado was sighted. She at once gavechase, and though the Virginius was onthe high seas and was flying the Americanflag, overhauled her and took possession ofher on the thirty-first of October. The Tornado then carried her prize into theport of Santiago de Cuba, which was reached in all, were shot by order of the i.iiUtaryauthorities. The other prisoners were helo-in a most cruel captivity to await the pleasun iof the Spanish officials at Havana. The con-sul of the United States at Sanciago de Cubamade great exertions to save Fry and thosecondemned to die with him. He was treatedwith great indignity by the Spanish officials,and was not allowed to communicate with ADMINISTRATION OF ULYSSES S. GRANT. •3i3 Havana, from which point he could consulthis governnicnt by telegraph. When the news of the seizure of the Vir-ginias at sea under the American flagreached th

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Observing #Earth – ISS Expedition 3
cuba news
Image by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center
An Expedition 3 crew member on the International Space Station photographed Hurricane Michelle in November 2001. Captured here near Earth’s horizon, Hurricane Michelle made landfall on Cuba on November 4, 2001, with sustained winds of 135 miles per hour.

One of the long-standing experiments on the International Space Station is called Crew Earth Observations. The unique vantage point of Earth from space has allowed astronauts to capture some of the most compelling photographs ever seen. They are not only beautiful photographs, but also offer insight into how the planet is changing over time, from human-caused changes like urban growth and reservoir construction, to natural dynamic events such as hurricanes, floods and volcanic eruptions. Crew members have been photographing Earth from space since the early Mercury missions beginning in 1961. The continuous images taken from the space station ensure this record remains unbroken.

In celebration of Earth month, Marshall has posted images on Instagram of our planet beginning with Expedition 1 from 2000 all the way through the current Expedition 47.

To follow NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center on Instagram, click here.

Marshall’s Flickr will be posting these images this week in further celebration of Earth month. Keep up with all the images by clicking here.
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These official NASA photographs are being made available for publication by news organizations and/or for personal use printing by the subject(s) of the photographs. The photographs may not be used in materials, advertisements, products, or promotions that in any way suggest approval or endorsement by NASA. All Images used must be credited. For information on usage rights please visit: www.nasa.gov/audience/formedia/features/MP_Photo_Guidelin…

Cuba Noticias photos

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Evangelio segn San Marcos 10,28-31. Obra Padre Cotallo
cuba noticias
Image by Cotallo-nonocot
Martes 29 Mayo 2012
Evangelio según San Marcos 10,28-31.
Pedro le dijo: "Tú sabes que nosotros lo hemos dejado todo y te hemos seguido".
Jesús respondió: "Les aseguro que el que haya dejado casa, hermanos y hermanas, madre y padre, hijos o campos por mí y por la Buena Noticia,
desde ahora, en este mundo, recibirá el ciento por uno en casas, hermanos y hermanas, madres, hijos y, campos, en medio de las persecuciones; y en el mundo futuro recibirá la Vida eterna.
Muchos de los primeros serán los últimos y los últimos serán los primeros".

La marina de guerra rusa en Cuba
cuba noticias
Image by Cubahora
Tres buques de la marina de guerra de la Federación Rusa llegaron a La Habana para realizar una visita amistosa que se extenderá hasta el próximo martes… bit.ly/185txLz

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